Education 101- Chapter Two NotesWho are today's teachers?
Middle School Teachers
High School Teachers
Non-traditional school ettings
KNOWLEDGE AND SKILL
*Student Characteristics (aptitudes, talents, learning styles, development, understanding)
-understanding material and how to relate it back to students so they understand
-know what activities work best in order for students to retain material and information
PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE- wisdom about teaching learning, students, and content. Ability to present subject matter to students through analogies, metaphors, experiments, demonstrations and illustrations.
How to use educational theory and research
TEACHERS CRAFT KNOWLEDGE- teachers response to problems of practice
Integrate technology into teaching
EMERGENCY CERTIFICATION-(waivers) deal with teacher shortages.
Education and Training
NBPTS-National Board for Professional Teaching Standards
- offer board certifications to teachers who possess high NBPTS skills. National Board Certification is highly prestigious.
The National Education Association-
members include teachers and administrators. Founded in 1857, started by 43 educators from a dozen states and the District of Columbia.
-committees in relationships, human relations, political action, teacher benefits, and teacher rights.The American Federation of Teachers-(union)
The NEAFT Partnership-
Schools and Socialization of the Young
Schools and Social Change
Focus on Diversity: Schools and Equal Educational Opportunity
How can schools be described?
Metaphors for Schools
Focus on Diversity: Schools and Social Class
Four Types of Schools
The school as a reflection of society
Rural School Settings
Urban and Suburban Settings
Focus on Diversity: Overcoming the Effects of Poverty
The culture of the School
The Physical Environment
Formal Practices of Schools
The Culture of the Classroom
What are the characteristics of successful schools?
Measures of Success
Research on School Effectiveness and School Improvement
What social problems affect schools and place students at risk?
Identifying Student at Risk
Focus on Diversity: America's Dropout Problem
Violence and Crime
How are schools addressing societal problems?
How can community based partnership help students learn?
the community as a resource for schoolscivic organizationsvolunteer mentor programscorporate-education partnerships21st century community learning centers (cclcs)schools as resources for communitiesbeyond the school dayschool services
Essentialism- essential knowledge, "back to basics", "what you need to know."Existentialism- meeting true potential, "why are you here", role to help students discover their purposePerennialism- things have same value, important information is still used today; example: Shakespeare Progressivism- "actively" engaging with environment; example: changing a tire physicallySocial Reconstruction- interaction, makes society better, child makes a decision that results in a better society; example: eliminate poverty, problem solving, social skills, etc.Teacher Centered- essentialism and perennialismIn between- ProgressivismStudent Centered (let the child decide)- social reconstruction and existentialism
Teacher Centered- essentialism and perennialismIn between- ProgressivismStudent Centered (let the child decide)- social reconstruction and existentialism
Teacher Centered- essentialism and perennialism
In between- Progressivism
Student Centered (let the child decide)- social reconstruction and existentialism
History of Education
Who, what did each person contribute to education
Court Cases1. Kalamazoo Case: citizens of Kalamazoo, Mich., challenged (1872) collection of taxes for support of a public high school; the Michigan Supreme Court decided (1874) state had right to levy taxes for support of complete system of public education, including high schools and universities; case set a precedent for other states.2. Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka: The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and its legal offspring, the Legal Defense and Educational Fund, developed a systematic attack against the doctrine of "separate but equal." The campaign started at the graduate and professional educational levels. The attack culminated in five separate case gathered together under the name of one of them-Oliver Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Aware of the gravity of the issue and concerned with the possible political and social repercussions, the U.S. Supreme Court heard the case argued on three separate occasions in as many years. The Court weighed carefully considerations involving adherence to legal precedent, social-science findings on the negative effects of segregation, and the marked inferiority of the schools that African Americans were forced to attend. The Supreme Court announced its unanimous decision on May 17, 1954. It held that school segregation violated the Equal Protection and Due Process clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. The following year the Court ordered desegregation "with all deliberate speed."3. Education for All Handicapped Children Act: In 1975, Congress passed Public Law 94-142 (Education of All Handicapped Children Act), now codified as IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act). In order to receive federal funds, states must develop and implement policies that assure a free appropriate public education (FAPE) to all children with disabilities4. Elementary and Secondary Education Act: was passed in 1965 as a part of the "War on Poverty." ESEA emphasizes equal access to education and establishes high standards and accountability. The law authorizes federally funded education programs that are administered by the states. In 2002, Congress amended ESEA and reauthorized it as the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB).5. Morrill Land-Grant Act: the Morrill Act provided each state with 30,000 acres of Federal land for each member in their Congressional delegation. The land was then sold by the states and the proceeds used to fund public colleges that focused on agriculture and the mechanical arts. Sixty-nine colleges were funded by these land grants, including Cornell University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the University of Wisconsin at Madison.6. National Defense Education Act: (NDEA), federal legislation passed in 1958 providing aid to education in the United States at all levels, public and private. NDEA was instituted primarily to stimulate the advancement of education in science, mathematics, and modern foreign languages. The act provides institutions of higher education with 90% of capital funds for low-interest loans to students. NDEA also gives federal support for improvement and change in elementary and secondary education. The act contains statutory prohibitions of federal direction, supervision, or control over the curriculum, program of instruction, administration, or personnel of any educational institution.7. Scopes Monkey Trial: began July 10, 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee, when high school biology teacher John T. Scopes (1900-70), faced court proceedings on the charge of having taught evolution in violation of the Butler Act. Although Scopes technically lost the case, many perceive it as a victory for evolutionists and rationalism.8. Title IX Education Amendment:
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities which receive Federal financial assistance. Title IX states that:
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
Why is philosophy important to teachers? Knowledge of educational philosophy enables teachers to understand the complex political forces that influence schools, to evaluate more effectively current proposals for change, and to grow professionally. Professional teachers teachers continually strive for a clearer, more comprehensive answer to basic philisophical questions. Most schools have a statement of philosophy that describes educational values and goals.What determines your educational philosophy? an educational philosophy is a set of beliefs about education, a set of principles to guide professional action. a teachers educational philosophy is made up of personal beliefs about teaching and learning, students knowledge, and what is worth knowing.Branches of Philosophy: Metaphysics- concerned with explaining, as rationally and comprehensively as possible, the nature of reality (what is reality?) Epistemology- these questions all focus on knowledge (what knowledge is true? how does knowing take place? how do we know what we know?) -knowing based on authority, knowing based on divine revelation (knowledge in the form of supernatural revelations), knowing based on empiricism/experience (know. acquired by the senses), knowing based on reason and logical analysis (thinking logically), knowing based on intuition (w/o the use of rational thought)Axiology- highlights the fact that the teacher has an interest not only in the quantity of knowledge that students learn, but also in the quality of life that becomes possible because of that knowledge. Ethics- what is good and evil, right and wrong, just and unjust?Aesthetics- concerned with values related to beauty and artLogic- processes of reasoning and identifies rules that will enable the thinker to reach valis conclusions. (Socratic questioning: the discussion leader only asks questions, the discussion is systematic, the leader's questions direct the discussion, everyone participates in an effort to "go beneath the surface" and to explore the complexities of the topic or issue under discussion.)What psycological orientations have influenced teaching philosophies? Humanism: Children are innately good, and education should focus on individual needs, personal freedom and self-actualization. Behaviorism: By careful control of the educational environment and with appropriate reinforcement techniques, teachers can cause students to exhibit desired behaviors. Constructivism: teachers should "understand students' understanding" and view learning as an active process in which learners construct meaning.How can you develop your educational philosophy? instead of basing their teaching on only one educational philosophy, most teachers develop an eclectic educational philosophy. professional teachers continually strive for a clearer, more comprehensive answer to basic philisophical questions.
What were teaching and schools like in the american colonies?- colonial education was patterned after the British two-track system, and its primary objective was to promote religion. - colonial teachers had low status, though respect increased with grade level. - puritans believed that children were naturally corrupt and sinful and should be disciplined sternly at the dame schools, reading and writing schools, and latin grammar schools common to the colonies. - one of the first schools for african americans and native americans was started in 1704- mandated education in the US had its origins in two colonial laws: the massachusetts acts of 1642 (prior to this act parents could choose if their child would be educated at home or at school but after this act the choice was no longer voluntary) and 1647 (mandated the establishment and support of schools)- teachers in colonial schools needed minimal qualifications- parochial schools were based off of religious beliefs- dame schools were run by widows or housewives in their homes and supported by modest fees by parents. classes were generally held in the kitchen where children learned the bare minimums. HORN BOOK was a copy of the alphabet covered by a thin transparent sheet made from a cows horn.- reading and writing schools: where boys recieved an educatuon that went beyond what their parents could teach them at home or what they could learn at a dame school.- latin grammar schools: comparable to today's secondary school, prep for harvard college- schools for african americans and native americansWhat were the goals of education during the revolutionary period?- Benjamin Franklin's academy: philadelphia academy which replaced old latin grammar schools which focused on english language rather than latin. emphasized the classics as well as practical knowledge and skills.- Sarah Pierce's female academy: female seminaries trained women for higher education and public service outside the home. - Thomas Jefferson's philosophy- Noah Webster's speller: noah came out with the first text book which was published throughout the united states- education for african americans and native americans: schools started (many by the quakers) so that african americans and native americans could get an education.How was the struggle won for the state-supported common schools?- Horace Mann: his main goal was to improve schools, the normal school- curriculum consisted of general knowledge courses plus courses in pedagogy (teaching) and practice teaching in a model school affiliated with a normal school.- reverand W. H. mcguffey's readers: far more popular than noah webster's speller. taught countless children and adults how to read and study.How did compulsory education change schools and the teaching profession?- scientific management: school officials undertook reforms based on management principles and techniques from big business.- the kindergarten: stressed the motor development and self-activity of children before they began formal schooling at the elementary level.- higher education for african americns- the NEA and the AFT were founded to professionalize teaching and increase teachers salaries and benifits- the NEA appointed the committee of ten and committee of fifteen to make recommendations for the secondary and elementary curriculaWhat werre the aims of education during the progressive era?- john dewey's labratory school at the university of chicago, a model of progressive education, offered a curriculum based on children's interests and needs.- public criticism of progressive education led to its decline at the start of WWII- school enrollments became increasingly diverse as a result of immigration and a goal of education was the rapid assimilation of all groups into an english-speaking anglo-european culture.How did education change during the modern postwar era?- the soviet union's launching of the sputnick in 1957 sparked educational reform, particularly in science, mathematics, and foreign language education. schools were ordered to desegregate due to brown vs board of edu.- innovate curricula and instructional strategies were used in many classrooms of the 1960's. - alarmed by declining test scores, the public became critical of schools in the 70's and demanded accountability. an array of federak legislation was passed to provide equal educational opportunity for all students.- in response to continuing challenges to education today, teachers are taking leadership roles in school reconstruring, school governance, curriculum change, and other aspects of educational reform.What are the educational priorities of the new century?- three trends will continue to be educational priorities during this century: equity for all students, excellence and high standards, and accountability for schools and teachers
Why do you need to understand educational politics? a) To become a voice for the childrn tey teach b) To speak out for or against educational policies c) To set a direction for schools in America d) Understand the amount and distribution of funds for education e) To what and how teachers teach in the classroom School policies are developed in a political milieu Reforming schools is a (essentially) series of political acts Politics- refers to how people use power, influence, and authority within an organization to persuade others to act in desired way.
Educational governance structure embraces Political Units: US Congress Us Department of Education State governments Local school districts
10 identified groups that shape educational policies
1. Parents- concerned with controlling local schools so that quality education programs are available
2. Students- concerned with policies related to freedom of expression
3. Teachers- Concerned with their role in school to reform, and improving working conditions
4. Administrators- Concerned with providing leadership so that various interest groups participate in the shared governance of schools and developmental qualities
5. taxpayers- concerned with maintaining an appropriate for determining financial support for schools
6. Federal Sate and Local authorities- Concerned with implementation of court orders
7. Ethnic and Racial groups- concerned with availability of equal educational opportunity for all
8. Educational theorist and researchers- concerned with using theoretical and research based insights as the basis for improving schools
9.Corporate sector- concerned with receiving from the schools graduates who have the knowledge skills and attitudes to help and organization realize its goals
10. Special interest groups- advancing educational reforms to reflect particular religious, philosophical, and economic points of view.
Educational Politics- to affect instructional and curricular practices with in a school or school system
How does the local community influence schools? The Tenth Amendment used as a basis for giving states the legal authorityto create and manage school systems and gives to the states all powers not reserved for the federal govrnment and not prohibited to the states Local school districts- Organizationa structures of school districts differ. Large urban system (several districts) tend to have a more complex distribution of roles and responsibility School Boards- acting as a state agent is responsible for: approving the teachers, administrators, school personnel hired by the superintendent, developing organizational and educational policies and determining procedures for evaluationg programs and personnel. School board members are elected in general elections (some by mayor in urban areas) 3-5 year terms. Board size range form 5-15 members (paid positions). Board meetings are open to the public. Open meetings allow parents and interested citizens an opportunit to express their concerns and to get information about problems in the district. Effective boards focus on students achievements, allocate resourcs to needs, watch the return on invstments, use data, egage the communities they serve (Ward & Griffin, March 21, 2006) Superintendent of Schools- Key figure in determining district's educational policy. Board of Education deligates broad powers to the superintendent as his/her policies require board approval. Effective superintendents play 3 roles simultaneously: politician, manager, and teacher. The Role of Parents- Schools develop clos working relationships with parents. Children whose parents support and encourage activities have an advantage in school. Participation on school advisory and site based councils aid in restructuring and school reform efforts. Parent-teacher associations (PTA) gives parents the opportunity to communicate with teachers. (PTO, PA councils) Many parents also influence character of education of private, parochial, for-profit, and charter schools. Also, involvement in promoting school choice, voucher system, and the home schooling movement.
School Resturcturing- To improve the peformance of schools, to enhance the profesional status of teachers, andto decentralize the system of govnance. Allowing those who know students best - teachers, principals, aids, custodians, librarians, secretries, and parents - greater freedom in deciding how to meet studen needs (shared governance, administrative decentralization, teacher empowerment and other names) The Handbook on Restructurng and Substantial School Improvement (authored by The Academic Development Institute with support from the US Dept. of Education "indicators" for successful restructued school. Team structure-improvement plan and school governance policy •Leadership Team- principals, teachers who lead instructional teams (key professional staff) meeings and regularly looks at school performance data •Professional Development of teachers- effective teaching •Parent policies, activities, and programs cultivate the "curriculum of the home" •School maintains a centrl database- student test scores, placement information, demographics, attendence, behavior, and other variables School Based Management (SBM) 3 components in common (1) Power and decisions formerly made by the superintendent and school board are delegated to teachers, principals, parents, and community members and studnts at local schools (2) At each school, a decision-making body (known as a board, cabinet, site-based team, or council- teachers, principals, parents) (3) SBM operate with ful suppor of superintendent of schools
What powers and influence do states have in governing schools? Higher student preformance, more efficent use of resources Increased skills, satifaction in school administration and teachers, greater involvement in and support for schools The Legislature- establishing and maintaining public schools and for determining educational policies (1) How the state board of education will be selected and their responsibilities are (2) Chief state schol officer will be selected and what duties will be (3) How the state department of education will function (4) How state will be divided into local and regional districts (5) How higher education will be organized and financed (6) How local school boards will be selected and what their powers will be (7) May determin how taxes will be used to support schools, what will be taught, length of school day/year, how many years of compusory education will be required, whether state will have community college, and vocational/technical schools. Legislatures may pass laws that provide for reasonable supervision of nonpublic educational instutitions The State Courts- called on to uphold the power of the legislature to develop laws that apply to schools The Governor- may appoint/remove educators at the state level...use his veto powers to influence the legislature to ass certain laws related to education. Make educational budget recommendations to legislature. National Governors' Association (NGA) is active in theacher education and school reforms. State Board of Education- under the authority of the state legislature, highest educational agency in the state (2 separate boards (1) elementary-secondary (2) Higher education) concerned with policy making. (a) ensuring local school districts adhere to educational policies, rules and regulations (b) setting standards for issuing/revoking teaching and adminstrative certificates (c) establishing standards for accrediting schools (d) managing state monies (e) develop and implementing a system for collecting educational data (f) advising the governor on issues (g) identifying short/long range educational needs (h) hearing all disputes arising from educational policies State Department of Education The educational program implemented by state concerned with the day-to-day implementation of those policies. Elementary and Secondary Act (1965) required that local applications for federal funds to be used for innovative programs and for the education of disadvantage/disabled, bilingual and migrant students, certifying teachers, distributing state/federal funds, reporting to the public conditions of education within the state ensuring school districts adhere to state/federal guidelines, accrediting schools, monitoring students transportation and safety, sponsoring research and evaluation projects to improve education within the state. Chief State School Officer- (Superintendent of Public Istruction)- chief administrator of the Dept. of Education and head of the state board of education. Can be appointed by board of education, general election or appointed by governor. Serve as chief aministrator of state department of education. Select state department of education personnel, recommending educational policies/budget to the state board. Interpreting state school laws and state board of education policies, ensuring compliance with state school laws and policies, mediating controversies involving operation of school within the state. Arranging for studies, comittees and task forces to address educational problems/recommend solutions, rporting on status of Education to governor, legislature, state board, and the public. How do regional education agencies assist schools? Regional Educational Service Agency (RESA) Local school districts can receive supportive services Provide assistance directly to districts in the areas of staff development, curriculum development, instructional media, and program evaluation. Also, school improvement efforts How does the federal government influence education? The strength and well-being of the country are directly related to the quality of its schools. Rights of free speech of teachers and students under the First Amendment and the right of all citizens to equal educational opportunities under the Fourteeth Amendment Federal Initiaives- Lanham Act (1941) Provides funding for: (1) training workers in war plants (office of Educational Personnel) (2) construction os schools in areas where military personnel and worers on federal projects resides (3) Provision of child care for children of working parents G.I. Bill of Rights (1944) (1)Exert moral suasion- develop a vision and promote educational goals for the nation (2)Provide catergorical aid- assist schools systems with funding if they adopt federally endorsed programs, methods, or curricula. (3)Regulate-withhold federal funds if a school system fails to follow legl statutes related to equal educational opportunity (4)Fund educational research- indentify and then fund reseach projects related to federal goals for education
The Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (2010) students would leave high school "college or career ready" (1) improving teacher and principal effectiveness (2) providing information to families to help them evaluate and improve their children's school (3) implementing college-and career-ready standards (4) improving student learning and achievement in America's lowest preforming school by providing intensive support and effective interventions
Sources of Funding A combination of revenue from local, state, and federal sources is used to finance public elementary and secondary schools in the United States. Early in the 20th century, nearly all schools revenues were generated from local property taxes. Local funding- property taxes State funding- Sales taxes and income tax Federal funding- Block grants, entitlements (1981) Education Consolidation and Improvement Act Broad range of choices in spending federal money
How will the privatzation movement affect equity and excellence in education? Charter Schools- are independent, innovative, out-come based, public schools For-profit schools- more efficient, reduce cost and maximize "production" student achievement Teacher-owned Schools- teachers, administrators, and other educational stakeholders become owners of schools, thus aquiring a financisl stake in the process.
Plessy vs. Ferguson The state of Louisiana enacted a law that required separate railway cars for blacks and whites. In 1892, Homer Adolph Plessy--who was seven-eighths Caucasian--took a seat in a "whites only" car of a Louisiana train. He refused to move to the car reserved for blacks and was arrested The Supreme Court ruled that the "separate but equal" provision of the Louisiana law was constitutional. The case established this principle of segregation until it was overturned in 1954.Engel v. Vitale1962It's unconstitutional to have an official school prayer to start the school day under the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Here's the prayer banned by this Long Island, N.Y., case, similar to others around the country at that time: "Almighty God, we acknowledge our dependence upon Thee, and we beg Thy blessings upon us, our parents, our teachers and our country. Amen." Lemon v. Kurtzman1971Pennsylvania was reimbursing private schools for teachers' salaries, textbooks, and instructional materials, as long as the courses were secular or non-religious in nature, the same as in public schools, and the curriculum was approved by the State. However, the practice was thrown out as constituting "excessive entanglement" between government and religion. The court also set up "The Lemon Law," to be used in future cases deciding whether there has been sufficient separation of church and state in various matters. A state law must have a secular, non-religious purpose; the effect of the law must neither advance nor inhibit religion; the money should flow to the parents and not to the schools, and it shouldn't foster over-involvement of church and state.Plyler v. Doe1982Public schools have to allow the children of illegal aliens to enroll, and state and local tax bodies have to pay the costs.Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier1988Student journalists don't have the same "public forum" as adult journalists. They must obey censorship decisions by school officials since the school newspaper is produced as part of the school curriculum, under the guidance of a teacher during school hours, and students receive a grade for their work. Thus the publication thus bears the "imprimatur," or stamp of approval, of the school. The principal in this case banned student newspaper content about pregnancy and divorce because he felt the pregnant student was identifiable, and the adult subject of a derogatory article was not given a chance to present his point of view.Zelman v. Simmons-Harris2002School-choice vouchers were declared constitutional under the First Amendment, even though sometimes they funnel money from state taxpayers to private, religious schools in this landmark case out of Cleveland, Ohio. The state's voucher plan provided $2,250 a year to some parents of students in the Cleveland City School District to attend participating public or private schools in the city and neighboring suburbs; it also allocated tutorial aid for students who remained in public school. Far more families applied for the vouchers than there was funding for them, and about eight out of 10 of the participating private schools had a religious affiliation. In a 5-4 vote, the Supreme Court ruled that vouchers to private schools were allowable as long as the school's program had a valid secular purpose, the aid was going to the parents and not to the schools, a broad class of beneficiaries were participating, voucher allocation was neutral with respect to religion, and there must be adequate nonreligious options.Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kan.1954Racial segregation of schools was ended because all citizens have "equal protection under the law." In Topeka, an African-American student named Linda Brown had to walk five miles to the local school that enrolled minority students, when a "white" school was right across the train tracks from her home.Goss v. Lopez: This 1975 decision bolstered students' rights in the face of disciplinary action. Dwight Lopez and eight other students were suspended from Ohio's Marion-Franklin High School for destruction of property. However, their suspension came without a hearing or parental notification, and the swiftness and execution of that punishment was deemed by the Supreme Court (ruling 5-4) to be a violation of students' rights to due process of the 14th Amendment. The ruling didn't do anything to condone Lopez's actions, but it was important in determining that students are deserving of certain procedural rights when they're involved in disciplinary actions.Bethel School District v. Fraser: This 1986 ruling was one of those that refined the Tinker test. A student named Matthew Fraser gave a speech on behalf of another student running for school office that was packed with sexual innuendo, and as a result, Fraser was suspended. He sued that the suspension violated his right to free speech, and though the district court and circuit court of appeals sided with Fraser, the Supreme Court overturned those rulings and said that his suspension had been constitutional. The Court said that while students should still expect reasonable chances to exercise free speech, the school has the right to monitor and punish sexually vulgar speech. It's a limiting of Tinker, but a helpful one for educators looking to strike a balance between speech and censorship.Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe. This 2000 Supreme Court case dealt with prayer at football games. A high school in Texas allowed a student chaplain to recite Christian prayers over the P.A. system before football games, which raised the ire of some non-Christian parents, who sued under the Establishment Clause. The district court and the circuit court of appeals found that the prayers were acceptable as long as they were deemed "nonsectarian" and "non-proselytizing," but the parents appealed all the way to the Supreme Court. In a 6-3 ruling, the Supreme Court found that such prayers were indeed unconstitutional, since the prayers were happening at school-sponsored events, on school property, using members of the student body. As a result, no amount of nonsectarian labeling could change the fact that the prayers would seem to be issued at the school's request and with its approval, which violates the Establishment Clause.Board of Education of Independent School District #92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earls (2002)Random drug tests of students involved in extracurricular activities do not violate the Fourth Amendment.In Veronia School District v. Acton (1995), the Supreme Court held that random drug tests of student athletes do not violate the Fourth Amendment's prohibition of unreasonable searches and seizures. Some schools then began to require drug tests of all students in extracurricular activities. The Supreme Court in Earls upheld this practice.Murray v. Pittsburgh Board of Public Education-This action arises under the Civil Rights Act of 1871, 42 U.S.C. § 1983. Plaintiff, Diane Murray, is a high school English teacher employed by the Pittsburgh Board of Public Education. She challenges a school policy that prohibits her from using a classroom management technique called "Learnball"; organizing an after-school activity called a "Learnball Superbowl"; and displaying Learnball symbols, literature, and related paraphernalia in her classroom. Plaintiff seeks a declaratory judgment that the policy constitutes an unconstitutional restraint of free speech in violation of the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the United States Constitution. She also seeks permanent injunctive relief.Flores v. Morgan hill Unified School District-2003-In 1998, Alana Flores, Freddie Fuentes, Jeanette Dousharm, and three other students sued the Morgan Hill Unified School District in Morgan Hill, California, charging that school district employees repeatedly ignored or minimized many reports by the students that they were being abused by others who thought they were gay. As a result of the settlement, the district will implement a comprehensive training program for administrators, staff, and students to combat anti-gay harassment.
In December 2004, the ACLU-PA sued the Dover Area School District on behalf of eleven parents who objected to the recent policy that required the teaching of intelligent design in biology classes as an alternative to evolution. We allege that intelligent design is stealth creationism and, therefore, teaching a religious doctrine in science class violates the Establishment Clause. .
Kitzmiller vs. Dover Area School District-The six-week trial concluded on November 4, 2005. On December 20, 2006, Judge John E. Jones II issued a blistering 139-page opinion in which he found intelligent design to be a religious view and not a scientific theory.J.C. v. Beverly Hills Unified School District 2009- the court held that discipline for students who created a crude video mocking other students off-campus, and subsequently posted it on YouTube, was unwarranted because the video did not create a risk of a substantial disruption to the educational process. Because there were no threats or violence in the video, the court reasoned that no jury could reasonably conclude that the video could have caused a substantial disruption in the school
Due Process- cannot be violated-protection from being treated arbitrarily by those in authority.Nondiscrimination- employment protected by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964Teaching Contract- an agreement between teacher and a board of education.Valid-1. Offer and acceptance2.Competent parties(meets criteria)3.Consideration-remuneration is promised4.Legal Subject matter-the contract terms are neither illegal nor against public policy5. Proper Form-contract afheres to state contract lawsTenure-job security,prevention from dismissal, 2-5 yearsGood reason for dismissal-1.incompetence or inefficiency2.neglect of duty3.conduct unbecoming teacher4. insubordination5.subversive behavior6. decreased need for service7.physical/mental health8.encouraging disruptionCollective bargaining laws-laws that require school boards to negotiate contracts with teacher organizationsGrievance-formal complaint against his/her employerHorton-ville Joint School District No. 1 v. Hortonville Education Association 1976Academic Freedom-teachers have the right to use methods and materials to which school officials may object too. Murray v. Pittsburgh Board of Public EducationJohn Scopes Trial-Monkey Trial teaching about evolutionKrizek v. Cicero-Stickney Township High School District No.201 1989-district court ruled against a teacher who showed an R-rated movie (About Last Night) as a modern day parallel to Thorton Wilders play Our Town. Did not communicate with parents directly.Mozert v. Hawkins County Board of Education 1987.1988- group of Tennessee parents objected to "secular humanist" materials used by their childrens teachers.Smith v. Board of School Commissioners of Mobile County 1987,suit alleging 44 historu, social studies, home economics texts used encouraged immorality, undetermined authority, imbued "humanist" faith.Tort Liability-an individual who is negligent and at fault in the exercise of his/her legal duty may be required to pay monetary damages to an injured party.Negligence-held liable for injuries due to ignorance to situations -inadequate supervision-inadequate instruction-lack or improper medical treatment -improper disclosure or defamatory information concerning pupilsEducational malpractice-schools should be responsible for a pupil whose failure to achieve is significant.Peter Doe v. San Francisco...- charged the San Francisco Unified District because they allowed him to graduate high school at a fifth grade reading level.Fourth Amendment- protects against unlawful search and seizurePicarella v Terrizzi- Can search a child if child abuse is suspectedCopyright lawsMarcus V. Rowley 1983- one may use the copyrighted material in a reasonable manner without the copyright holders consent as lone as that use does not reduce the demand for the work or authors income.Digital Millennium Copyright Act- illegal to circumvent copy-blocking measures that control access to copyrighted work.Brevity-short works can be copied 10% of a large workSpontaneity- no time to request permission(last min. find)Effect-limit use of copies to one time
*Culture is not only a matter of race or the color of a person's skin; it includes the shared norms, traditions, behaviors, language, and perceptions of a group. As a teacher it is important to be aware of your students' culture differences and be able to incorporate these differences into your lessons--Amanda, Teacher Education program, first year*About half of today's children will spend some portion of childhood in a single-parent family, and more than a third will live with a stepparent. Over half of marriages end in divorce, and two-thirds of divorced women and three-quarters of divorced men will remarry. (Heilnan,2008, pg.9)*How is Diversity Reflected in the Culture of the United States? Children of immigrants accounted for the entire growth in number of young children in the U.S. between 1990 and 2008 (Urban Institute, August 2010, p.1). Half from Latin American countries- Mexico, Central America and Spanish-speaking Caribbean and South America. Census Bureau estimates that by 2025 half of the U.S. youth will be white and half minority. By 2050, no single group will be a majority among adults. Increasing diversity in the United States is reflected in the nation's schools. 2008- 45% of public school students were part of a minority group (13% increase from 1988). 1998-2008- white students from 68% to 55% Hispanic- 22% of public school enrollment -up 11% (1988) Black students- 16% public school 2008-down 1% (1988) to Other racial and ethnic groups increased 4% (1998) to 7% (2008) (Aud et el., 2010)*The Meaning of Culture Culture is the way of life common to a group of people. It consist of the values, attitudes, and beliefs that influence their traditions and behaviors. It is also a way of interacting with and looking at the world. "A salad bowl" analogy captures more accurately the cultural pluralism of U.S. society."Everyone in the United States share some common dimensions of culture". James Banks-Authority on Multicultural Education, "National Macro culture".*Dimensions of Culture Culture groups differ according to other distinguishing factors: religion, politics, economic, and geographic region.1. Ethnic group- made up of individuals within a large culture who share a self-defined racial or cultural identity and a set of beliefs, attitudes, and values. Distinguish themselves from others in society by physical and social attributes.*Cultural Identity Each individual participates in an array of subcultures (each with it's customs and beliefs). Collectively, these subcultures determine an individual's cultural identity. An overall sense of who one is. Other elements include age, racial identity, exceptionalities, language, gender, sexual orientation, income level, and beliefs and values. For some cultural identity is most strongly determined by occupations, ethnicity or religious beliefs. *Individualistic Culture: (U.S., Canada, Western Europe, Australia) individual uniqueness, self-determination, independence, self-reliance, and individual achievement, self-expression, individual choice, equality of relationships, task orientation, individual will-being, self-esteem, emphasizes the individual and his or her success and achievement.*Collectivistic Culture: (many Asian, African, South American) Loyal to group and family, interdependence, cooperation and group success, adherence to group norms, group consensus, hierarchical relationships, group orientation, group well-being modesty, emphasizes group memberships and a sense of "we" rather then "I". *Language and Culture: conflict among different groups in our society. Preservation of ethnic cultures, non-English-speaking group should learn English, preserve linguistic diversity, conflict with those who wish to establish English as a national language. Bilingual Education: using two languages as the medium of instruction to help students maintain their ethnic identity and become proficient in both English and the language of home, to encourage assimilation into mainstream culture.*The Concept of Multiculturalism- importance of seeing the world from different cultural framed of reference, and recognizing and valuing the rich array of cultures within a nation and global community. Affirms the need to create schools where differences related to race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, disability, and social class are acknowledged and all students are viewed as valuable resources for enriching the teaching-learning process. Central purpose is to prepare students to live in a cultural pluralistic world.*Ethnicity and Race Ethnicity refers to a "shared sense of peoplehood, culture, identity, and shared language and dialects.Race is a subjective concept that is used to distinguish among human beings on the basis of biological traits.*The Concept of Minorities Minority-any group numbering less than half of the total population.*Minority Groups and Academic Achievement It has been estimated that ethnic minority students are two to four times more likely than others to drop out of high school. 70-75% of White students who start high school graduate in four years. 50% African American and Latino students graduate. When we consider the lower achievement levels of minority student, it is important to note the much higher incidence of poverty among minority families and the research showing that socioeconomic status-not race-language, or culture-contributes most strongly to students' achievement in school.*Stereotyping and Racism Stereotyping-is the process of attributing behavioral characteristics to all members of a group.*Individual Racism-the prejudicial belief that one's ethnic or racial group is superior to others.*Institutional Racism-which occurs when institution's "behave in ways that are overtly racist." If you believe "that human groups can be validly groups on the basis of their biological traits and that these identifiable groups inherit certain mental, personality, and cultural charactistics that determine their behavior, then you hold racist beliefs". (Banks, 2009, p. 72)*Class and Socioeconomic Status 19% Children in the US live in poor families (at poverty level) 41% Children in low-income familiesTeachers in inner-city schools or schools in poor rural communities may find that nearly all their students are from families who live in poverty. Poverty can impede children's ability to learn and contribute to social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Cultural of Poverty- passed from generation to generation because of the increasing difficulty for children of the poor to receive adequate education and job training.*Religious Pluralism-- Population can be grouped into more than a dozen major religious traditions that, in turn, can be divided into hundreds of distinct religious groups.*What does Equal Educational Opportunity mean?Providing educational opportunity to all students that teachers and schools promote the ull development of students as individuals, without regard for race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, religion, abilities, or disabilities.*Education and African Americans The struggle of African Americans to improve their quality of life after the end of slavery has been hampered for generations by persistent racism, discriminations, poverty, crime, unemployment, and underemployment. The Civil Rights movement of the 1960's and 1970's made it clear that African Americans had been denied full access to many aspects of US life (including the right to a good education). The Desegregation Era-- The most blatant form of discrimination against African Americans has been school segregation and unequal educational opportunity. Prior to 1950's segregation was legal. Separate but equal school--NAACP brought suit (Brown vs. Board of Education, Topeka, Kanas)Resegregation of schools in the United States Judicial supervision of school districts' efforts to resegregate removed.*The Learning Needs of African Americans Students The failure of the school curriculum to address their learning needs may contribute to high drop-out rates and below-average achievement. Teaching strategies that emphasize cooperation (not competition) often results in higher achievement.Afrocentric Schools--Schools that focus on African American history and cultures for American (African) pupils.*Education and Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders At least 34 ethnic groups who speak more than 300 languages and dialects. Teachers concerns about Asian American students. Asians over 25 have a bachelor's degree (42.9%). Parents tend to require their children to respect authority and value education.*Education and Native Americans and Alaskan Natives 517 federally recognized, 365 state-recognized tribes, each with it's own language. Indian Education Act of 1972 and Amendments (1974)*Historical, Cultural, and Socioeconomic Factors Native Americans have endured systematic long-term attempts to eradicate their language and cultures. The Indian Education Act provide direct educational assistance to tribes. *What is meant by Bilingual Education? Programs are designed to meet the learning needs of students whose first language is not English by providing instruction in two languages. Research and debate on Bilingual Programs have little effect on achievement. Others have found that well-designed bilingual programs do increase students achievement.Four types of Bilingual Programs1. Immersion-students learn English/only English is spoken2. Transition-students receive reading lessons in their first language/lessons in English as a second language3. Pullout Programs-students separated from English speaking students4. Maintenance Programs-instructions in English and the native language are provided from K-12. *What is Multicultural Education? Is committed to the goal of providing all students-regardless of socioeconomic status; sexual orientation; or ethnic, racial, or cultural backgrounds- with equal opportunities to learn in school.Dimensions of Multicultural Education (5)1. Content integration 2. the knowledge construction process 3. prejudice reduction 4. an equity pedagogy 5. an empowering school culture and social structure.Multicultural Curricula-addresses the needs and background of all students regard of their cultural identity. Multicultural Instructional Materials and StrategiesTeachers must select instructional materials that are sensitive, accurately portray the contributions of ethnic groups, and reflect diverse points of view. *Essential knowledge and skills for successful teaching in a diverse society A. ability to communicate with students from other cultures B. skills in assessing the knowledge and abilities of students C. increased openness to examining and reassessing one's own culture attitudes, values, and beliefs. D. increased ability to respond positively and sensitively to the diversity of behavior in multicultural settings. E. Knowledge about the psychology, dynamics, and impact of prejudice and racism. F. increased capacity for humane, sensitive, and critical inquiry into multicultural issues as they relate to teaching. G. deeper knowledge of one's own and other cultures/people are more alike than different. H. appreciation for differences among the value systems of diverse ethnic, racial, and class subcultures. *How is Gender a Dimension of Multicultural Education? Gender affects students' learning in many ways. Gender differences-sex role stereotyping and sex role socialization.Gender and Education-- Title IX of the Education Amendments Act (1972) women guaranteed equality of education. Further enhanced Women's Educational Equity Act (WEEA) of 1974. Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) students. Teachers should acknowledge the special needs of these students.Gender-fair classrooms and curricula--Teachers must encourage girls and boys to develop and provide them an education that is free from gender-basis.
*Culture is not only a matter of race or the color of a person's skin; it includes the shared norms, traditions, behaviors, language, and perceptions of a group. As a teacher it is important to be aware of your students' culture differences and be able to incorporate these differences into your lessons--Amanda, Teacher Education program, first year*About half of today's children will spend some portion of childhood in a single-parent family, and more than a third will live with a stepparent. Over half of marriages end in divorce, and two-thirds of divorced women and three-quarters of divorced men will remarry. (Heilnan,2008, pg.9)*How is Diversity Reflected in the Culture of the United States? Children of immigrants accounted for the entire growth in number of young children in the U.S. between 1990 and 2008 (Urban Institute, August 2010, p.1). Half from Latin American countries- Mexico, Central America and Spanish-speaking Caribbean and South America. Census Bureau estimates that by 2025 half of the U.S. youth will be white and half minority. By 2050, no single group will be a majority among adults. Increasing diversity in the United States is reflected in the nation's schools. 2008- 45% of public school students were part of a minority group (13% increase from 1988). 1998-2008- white students from 68% to 55% Hispanic- 22% of public school enrollment -up 11% (1988) Black students- 16% public school 2008-down 1% (1988) to Other racial and ethnic groups increased 4% (1998) to 7% (2008) (Aud et el., 2010)
"Who invented White People?" Scholar Gregory Jay (b.1952) wrote we should include whiteness in discussions relating to race.*The Civil Rights Act (1965) Dr. King's greatest legacy, Americans faced the facts that changing the laws did not change the feelings and beliefs of individuals, black and white. The "old boy networks" at major corporations ensures the continuation of white male dominance. It was white people who invented the idea of race in the first place, and it is white people who have become obsessed and consumed by it and have become entangled so deeply in pursuing its nature that they self-destruct in the process. Toni Morrison--(Playing in the Dark: Whitened and the Literary Imagination) Melville and other great writers of American tradition tell story of "whiteness" over and over. White identity defines itself against the backdrop of an African or colored presence: Moby Dick, Huck Finn, and Bill Cosby in "I Spy" and any number of black-white films. White Americans can only define t themselves by comparison to that which they are not, so whiteness depends on blackness for its very definition.Scholars of race generally agree that the modern meaning of whiteness emerges in the centuries of European colonialism and imperialism that followed Renaissance.Beginning in the 1500's, European began to develop what became known as "scientific racism"; the attempt to construct a biological rather then cultural definition of race. By the nineteenth century, race scientists settled on the term "Caucasians" as a synonym for Europeans.For white people, race functions as a large ensemble of practice and rules that gives white people all sorts of small and large advantages in life. The privileges of whiteness are the "not-so-secret" dirty truth about race relations in America. Talk of race in America should include whiteness.Diversity Vs White PrivilegeInterview: Christine Sleeter (Cal State Univ.) Multicultural education as a struggle against white racism rather than multiculturalism as a way to appreciate diversity. Both historically and in contemporary society, the relationships between racial and ethnics groups in this country are framed within a context of unequal power. People of European descent generally assumed the power to claim the land, claim the resources, claim the language. They even claim the right to frame the culture and identity of who we are as Americans. Multicultural education come out of the Civil Rights movement. The central issue remains on of justice.Q. A lot of white people resist using terms such as white racism, white supremacy, white privilege. How do you break through that defensiveness where they might argue, "I am where I am because I worked hard, not because I am white." One tactic is to look at family stories and situate those stories in a historical context. Let's use my grandfather as an example again. My grandfather worked very hard and I can't say that he didn't. But I can't just individualize his success. I have to look at it in the historical context of who had access to what. This allows me to say that yes, my grandfather worked hard, but in a situation in which the doors were closed to people who may have worked equally hard but who were not white. Q. Some people argue that multicultural education is being undermined by standardized testing, which rewards superficial knowledge about conventional aspects of the curriculum. On the other hand, some community groups, particularly in communities of color, argue that we need much more accountability because obviously the schools have underserved their children. How might people committed to multicultural curriculum and academic equity balance those two perspectives? That's a very important question. I don't advocate just simply throwing out testing. Testing that's used to guide instruction is extremely important. We need to monitor how kids are doing because kids of color and low-income white kids have been underschooled historically. So I believe in testing to improve instruction.Rethinking School How we approach multicultural Education and the challenges faced with development of curricula the deals with these issues. Faculty composition and educating teachers on "true racism". What is defined by the term racism? In a color-blind approach, there is a whole lot about a student that you are not seeing. *Stimulus Response--Based on the principle that desirable behavior can be the product of design rather then accident. Our behavior is determined by forces in the environment that shape our behavior.Homogeneous--same abilities/of the same or a similar kind of natureHeterogeneous--different in kind, unlike, having widely dissimilar elements or constituents
Behaviorists believe that children develop as they do because of what they learn from experience. While a variety of behavioral learning theories exist, they all view learning as a rather straight forward process.
Pavlov developed and tested the theory of classical conditioning. He theorized that learning occurs when individuals begin to associate one event with another. He proved this by ringing a bell while showing meat to dogs. The smell of the meat caused the dogs to reflexively drool. Over time, Pavlov would ring the bell without showing the meat and the dogs would still drool. He proved that he could teach the dogs to drool by pairing the bell with the smell of the meat. Later Watson applied this theory to people.
Skinner started with the idea of classical conditioning and expanded it to describe more complex associations. Skinner stated that animals and people display behaviors first by accident. If a new behavior is followed by a pleasant event (e.g., food, praise, earning of stickers, etc.), the individual will gradually learn to repeat the behavior. Thus, Skinner believed that learning occurs through the reinforcement of behaviors. (Note that according to this belief even undesirable behaviors are learned through reinforcement. For example, a toddler might ask for a treat and be told "no". The toddler throws a tantrum and the adult relents stating that he/she will provide the treat if the toddler will behave. If this process is repeated, the toddler will learn to throw tantrums as the adult has inadvertently reinforced the behavior.) This learning theory is called operant conditioning.
While Bandura's social learning theory is a behaviorist theory, it differs from that of classical and operant conditioning. Bandura's theory is more complex; it considers more variables. Bandura said that learning occurs through following processes:
Erikson described development as occurring when individuals face and resolve a series of crises. While Erikson gives an age to each stage of development, he did not view development as a strictly linear process. According to Erikson, individuals will go back and re-experience earlier stages when in times of crisis. These later relapses into earlier crises will be resolved more readily if the individual successfully resolved them initially. For example, a young adult who successfully developed trust as an infant will re-experience the trust versus mistrust crisis when faced with an unexpected divorce but will be able to re-establish trust more easily than an adult who didn't successfully resolve this crisis in infancy.
Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory is probably the theory which is most widely applied in daycares and preschools in the United States. His theory is very different from those we discussed in Module 4 as Piaget believes that children construct knowledge. Children do this through assimilation andaccommodation. Let's say that one young child lives in the country and another lives in the city. The child in the country lives on a large farm far from the road surrounded by pastures and fields. The child in the city lives in a row home with a sidewalk in front and a tiny, fenced yard and alley in back. Both children travel with their parents to visit a mutual friend in the suburbs who lives in a town house. The child from the city sees the houses connected together with yards both in front and behind. While this is different from the child's own home, he recognizes the similarities and is able to connect this new home into his concept of "house." This is the process of assimilation. This child expands his understanding of "home" to include connected houses with front yards and no alleys. This is the process of accommodation. However, the child from the country looks at this dwelling which is so different from his own. He thinks about the buildings he has seen which are connected together and remembers shopping trips. He decides that these people must live in a store. Thus, the two children have the same experience but interpret it differently because of their differing background knowledge. Piaget's idea that children are actively involved this way in the learning process was revolutionary.
While children in the preoperational stage have acquired important new skills, it is probably their reliance on physical cues which most sets children in this stage apart from children in other stages. At this age, children believe what they see at face value. Piaget demonstrated this through a famous experiment where he had children observe two glasses with equal quantities of liquid in them. He then had the children pour one glass into a tall, slender glass. Children in the preoperational stage who conducted this activity stated that the tall glass now had more liquid because the level of liquid is higher than in the other glasses. This belief in things as they seem also leads children in the preoperational stage to be disposed to believe in magic. How does an ice cube turn to a puddle of water? How does a fire start? How does a helium balloon float up into the air? Because preoperational children focus on the appearance of things instead of on abstract processes, they are likely to interpret such events as magical.
Because children in the preoperational stage think concretely and interpret things in light of their own experiences, they often give human characteristics to animals and inanimate objects. This practice leads them to interpret the sky as "angry" when it thunders or "sad" when it rains.
Like Piaget, Vygotsky believed that children are actively involved in the learning process. His sociocultural theory of learning stresses the role of language, social interaction, and society in the learning process. As individuals think about objects and actions in the environment and seek to solve problems, they use self-directed speech to better construct this new knowledge.. Adults and more able peers assist learning through scaffolding. While Piaget stressed learning as a solitary process, Vygotsky believed that much of learning occurs through interactions with others. These interactions include subtle guidance and direct assistance.
Vygotsky offered guidance to teachers regarding when and how to scaffold. He stated that the most learning occurs when children are presented with problems within their zone of proximal development. These are problems just a little too difficult for the children to solve on their own but which they are capable of solving with subtle guidance.
Maslow's hierarchy is most often displayed as a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs, while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid. Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food, water, sleep, and warmth. Once these lower-level needs have been met, people can move on to the next level of needs, which are for safety and security.
There are five different levels in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: